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ANTHROPOLOGY 105
Introduction to Biological Anthropology
Study Guide - Quiz 5 - Primate Behavior

The following are typical of the questions that may be encountered on Quiz 5.  The actual questions asked may or may not be from this list. 

1.  Identify or define and explain the importance, relevance, or significance of the following in the study of primates and their behavior:

bipedalism                           grooming                      altruism
Jane Goodall                       infanticide                     aggression
Washoe                              multimale group             Harry Harlow
xenophobia                         reciprocity                     dominance hierarchy
sexual dimorphism               Dian Fossey                  diurnal
predation                            Digit                              Passion
dietary preferences              muriquis                        alloparent
social organization               parental investment        Kanzi
behavioral ecology               home range                   fission-fusion society
crepuscular                          omnivore                       colobus

2.  Briefly compare the social structure of the three great apes with that of humans (i.e., family or band structure) and relate this to the concept that primates are innately social animals.

3.  What is a dominance hierarchy?  How is this reflected in primate social behavior (give examples)?

4.  Briefly describe the nature and importance of the mother-infant relationship among primates.

5.  What important observations/ideas concerning the care of small infants have come from primate field studies?   What are the implications of these for social development of primates?

6.  What characteristic of the killer/victim relationship is widely noted concerning infanticide among primates?  Does evidence exist for the same tendency among humans?

7.  What has primate field research contributed to our understanding of male-female relationships and nurturing of the young?

8.  Describe the benefits of individual alliances/friendship among primates identified by field studies.

9.  Briefly describe (using an example for each) how studies of the behavior of other primates have forced modification of the traditional beliefs that a) toolmaking and b) the ability to manipulate symbols set humans apart.

10.  Briefly describe a major difference between forest chimpanzees of West Africa and Gombe (Goodall's) chimpanzees in a) tool use, b) gender division of labor, and c) hunting behavior.

11.  Various studies have shown that there are cultural differences among chimpanzee bands in their methods of obtaining drinks.  List them.

12.  Briefly describe one instance of chimpanzee behavior that illustrates the similarity of their thinking to that of humans.

13.  List one major factor influencing the outcome of a colobus hunt by the Gombe chimps and the major factor determining when a hunt will be launched.

14.  What sorts of chimpanzee aggression and violence have been observed that suggest this aspect of human behavior is one inherited from our primate ancestors?

15.  What, briefly, does Goodall have to say about the nature of emotions in chimpanzees?

16.  In what three ways did Kanzi demonstrate his ingenuity by developing solutions to the problem of how to obtain flake tools?

17.  Briefly describe a project that has studied language ability in apes.  What have such studies shown us?

18.  What aspect of language do other primates seem unable to grasp?

19.  Describe one specific instance of primate "trickery" described in your readings or the videos.  What does this  suggest might be the relationship between such behavior and primate evolution?

20.  Briefly describe some of the observations made about bonobo behavior that differ from the common chimpanzees.

21.  How do alliances among bonobos differ from those in other primates?

22.  How does the role of sex among the bonobos (pygmy chimps) differ from that among chimpanzees?

31.  How has the involvement of women in primate research affected our interpretation of field observations?

32.  Briefly describe two ways in which the cultural behavior shown by the Yanomamö in the video resembles that of non-human primates.

33.  List two important functions served by play behavior

34.  What are the primary differences between the dominance hierarchies of baboons, chimpanzees, and bonobos.